Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (/ˈɡɑːndi, ˈɡæn-/; 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world. The honorific Mahātmā (Sanskrit: “high-souled”, “venerable”)—applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa—is now used worldwide. In India, he is also called Bapu (Gujarati: endearment for “father”, “papa”) and Gandhiji. He is unofficially called the Father of the Nation.